First assignment of group n° 109
Resources used by the team
First description of our project
First description of our project's idea
Provide a proposition of title for your project
Please answer to the three expected questions:
1. What Problem do you want to solve ?
The problem we want to solve is the coastal pollution.
The economy of the coastal cities is mainly established on the tourism. And that tourism is in direct link with theirs ports and seas. The main point of pollution of these cities is their ports. As a proof the reputation of the water in the ports is very negative
The marine pollution is defined as the introduction of waste, substances, or energy of human origin, which pulls or which may pull harmful effects for the alive resources and the marine ecosystems.
The direct consequences are , an impoverishment of the biodiversity, risks for the human health, obstacles for the maritime activities, in particular fishing, the tourism and the leisure activities as well as the other uses of the sea, a change of the quality of waters.
The aquatic waste includes any domestic, industrial, natural solid which finds themselves in the maritime and coastal environment. They can be composed of very varied nature: on-surface floating waste, waste put down in the seabed, waste failed on beaches and on coast and in very different circles: sea, coast, estuaries, lakes, rivers and rivers, networks of water.
Some figures: 70 in 80 % of waste found in seas and on the coast are of ground origin 60 in 95 % of fragments found at the bottom of seas is waste of plastics(plastic arts), mainly packagings: carrier bags, bottles. 712 waste is counted(recorded) by 100m of beach(range) Between the surface of the water and the 200 meters deep, we can count 150 million fragments for the North Sea, 50 millions for the Bay of Biscay, 300 millions for the Mediterranean Basin.
2. Why does this problem exist?
The problem of the harbour pollution is due to many causes such as boats, oil spilling, cargo, plastic wastes and tourist. Concerning the boats, there is an issue with the ballast water. There are compartments at the bottom of a ship that are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. This liquid is taken up at sea and is most of the time released in ports. It is a major source of the changing of the marine life’s biosystem and of the pollution of the harbour water. Moreover, the toxic products used to wash the boat are also rejected in the ports and are a major cause of the water pollution. The discharge of raw sewage into the sea and in the coastal sea areas, can lead to a depletion of oxygen in the water and visual pollution.
Then you can find the water present in the bilge that has to be pumped out to avoid risks of sinking the ship. Bilge water can contain oil, urine, detergents, solvents etc that have devastating effects.
Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can also pollute ports, waterways and oceans. It has been estimated that container ships lose over 10,000 containers at sea each year (usually during storms ). Oils spills can have devastating effects indeed 1L of oil spelt create a slick of 5000 m2, the components in crude oil are very difficult to clean up.
But one of the major problem is the lack of legislation according to the plastic waste, there isn’t any proper law to reduce it. This plastic waste are mainly due to the lack of conscience of the tourist during their trips because they didn’t belong to the place and they didn’t care of the cleanliness of the coasts. They didn’t have conscience of what their actions makes and of their repercussion on the pollution of the ports and coasts. The more they consume the more they pollute.
3. What breakthrough are you commited to creating?
Concerning the pollution of sea areas and especially the port zone, there are two main problems which are : Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids who are destroying submarine biodiversity and marine waste debris who will take time has deteriorated and kill sea species.
Regarding to the problem of water quality of coastals zone , there are absorbers of hydrocarbons, floating dams to isolate elements to drain and to work on slick already spread , and some anti-emission ships are be able to " skim " the water.
In spit e ofthose technological progress related to treatment and the collection of hydrocarbons the underlying problem that represent the greatest environmental threat is the spill and pollution of macro wastes. this phenomenon accentuated by globalization could lead in a few decade to the creation of the so -called " seventh continent "
Moreover concerning the problem of plastic waste , little solution exists fo port area some areas have create a flowage in particular under the pontoons so that waste accumulates and macro port teams can retrieve them easily, but this solution only concerns wastes that float
Our attention is focused on the macro-waste , our project is to design treatment farms intra-port. the key of success is a macrophage fungus which gives it optimum adaptation to any culture medium because it doesn’t need oxygen.
To ensure a sufficient supply in sunlight facilities will be in shallow areas of ports where macro- waste are naturally attracted by the movements of marine inputs and boats.
crop areas installed under breakdowns and pontoons enjoy a backwater movement that facilitate the absorption by fungal organisms.
To maximize the attraction of the inlaid or heavier waste, the areas is equipped with turbine paddles which use electricity and are very close the port’s power source .
This solution offers a bit expensive option and low average energy consumption moreover the impact on port fauna represents a source of food for all crustaceans and fish that are actively involved in the degradation of organic waste .
Potential experts already identified
Please mention the potential experts (name, affiliation, likelihood to convince him/her to join the final panel)
AZUR HARBOUR: The Mushroom of tomorrow
The pollution of harbour is closely linked to the coast. There are some figures:
- 70 in 80 % of waste found in seas and on the coast are of ground origin
- 60 in 95 % of fragments found at the bottom of seas is waste of plastics, mainly packaging’s: carrier bags, bottles.
- 712 waste is counted by 100m of beach
Between the surface of the water and the 200 meters deep, we can count 150 million fragments for the North Sea, 50 millions for the Bay of Biscay, 300 millions for the Mediterranean Basin. So when you think about marinas, you think about the holidays, boats trips, the sun, but the reality is quite different. Indeed the tourism is harmful to the French ports, the reputation of the ports of Côte d'Azur (French Riviera) is soiled by macro waste and rejections of dirty waters. Ports have the same functioning as the companies and it is through their image that they have to protect it. Indeed 70 % meadows of the present waste in the water of ports are of ground origin and consist of household waste and waste left by the tourists during their passages. Besides being fatal for the smooth running of harbors and for the image they reflect, this huge amount of waste is also harmful to the biodiversity and the seabed. It is why we built our solution on this axis and we would like to introduce you Azur Harbour.
The mushroom has the remarkable property to be able to break the chemical channels of polyurethane. Those molecules are contained in the plastic. In other words, this mushroom is a plastic eater! The plastic has invaded the planet and the oceans, it takes a really long time to decompose itself naturally, this mushroom is particularly promising. Our project is to use the Pestalotiopsis Microspora. This species of mushrooms entophytes are able to decompose and of digest the polyurethane in an anaerobic environment (without oxygen). This mushroom used industrially would allow strengthening considerably the fight against the plastic pollution by a massive recycling. It is at the first sight an extraordinary discovery. The main characteristic of Pestalotiopsis microspora is that it is autonomous if you compare it to the properties of the other mushrooms used to reduce the time of decomposition of the plastic. In a first we would like the launch our project in the French Riviera Area in few harbor. The concept is to book an area in the harbor, where all the waste will be attract by a suction system and will be destroyed by the mushrooms. After this step, the water will be re-injected in the harbor, clean and empty of plastic wastes.
What we aspire first is that our technology be recognized by the harbor’s director, and use more and more to clean all the French harbor and why not in other part of the world where this problem is the but. But we would also to inspire other technology, of cleaning the ocean for example. Because we fix only one problem, and it is a first step of the action of cleaning the ocean.