First assignment of group n° 080

De Movilab.org

Resources used by the team

NAME OF THE MEMBER OF THE TEAM
ACCESSED RESOURCES
BALLET Vincent
Videos:
  • Video 1 : “Subway to save Bangkok”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYAjrA0-bX8

  • Video 2 : “Pollution : le métro parisien plus pollué que le périphérique ?”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5M5uEcIDLA4

  • Video 3 : « Pollution dans le métro : y a-t-il danger ? (Toulouse)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFVlGyX9Cs8


Book : "Health effects of transport-related air pollution", edited by Michal Krzyanowski

https://books.google.fr/books?id=b2G3k51rd0oC&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106&dq=air+pollution+in+subway&source=bl&ots=O63s5BLr4x&sig=PeHzOeUU1lgIN7Tq2NjEyPY4AXA&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCDgKahUKEwjhyL2tppfIAhXFOBoKHTEpA04#v=onepage&q&f=false


Documents:

  • Article 1 : "La pollution de l’air du métro menace la santé des employés", from Francetvinfo

http://www.francetvinfo.fr/sante/maladie/la-pollution-de-l-air-du-metro-menace-la-sante-des-employes_1079315.html

  • Article 2 : "Subway steel dust: a gaping hole in public health research", from Scienceline

http://scienceline.org/2011/10/subway-steel-dust-a-gaping-hole-in-public-health-research/

  • Article 3 : "A New System to Reduce Air Pollution in Metro Platform", from Sciencedirect

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029611010413

  • Article 4 : "Pollution threat from Glasgow subway", from Heraldscotland

http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/13105436.Pollution_threat_from_Glasgow_subway/

  • Article 5 : "Passengers learn to battle poor air quality underground", from Global times

http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/894652.shtml

BOUAYAD Ali
Videos:
  • Video 1 : "Lung In A Box: Testing Air Quality Anywhere"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsRAnf7BP1k

  • Video 2 : "L'impact des particules fines sur la santé et l'environnement"

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x36f9hn_l-impact-des-particules-fines-sur-la-santeet-l-environnement_news

  • Video 3 : "Nearly 9,500 people die each year in London because of air pollution – study" Article + video

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/15/nearly-9500-people-die-each-year-in-london-because-of-air-pollution-study


Book :"Pollution de l’air et transport terrestres"

http://livre.fnac.com/a4251224/Collectif-Pollution-de-l-air-et-transportsterrestres?oref=00000000-0000-0000-0000- 000000000000&Origin=SEA_GOOGLE_PLA_BOOKS&adhce=crtdcvrt2014&mckv=w1 Mpl0FS_dc&pcrid=68196256703&ectrans=1&gclid=CjwKEAjwyqOwBRDZuIO4p5SV8 w0SJAAQoUSw44yeiGtmwSPVApjW_o4U3K6HSeYL1wXeNJLhSPz7thoCR__w_wcB


Documents:

  • Article 1 : "Quelle pollution dans le métro?" by Libération

http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/06/03/quelle-pollution-dans-le-metro_1321958

  • Article 2 : "Pollution dans le métro, gare à la santé des agents" by Les Echos

http://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/energie-environnement/021315101289-pollution-dans-le-metro-gare-a-la-sante-des-agents-1153947.php

  • Article 3 : "Paris: La pollution est aussi dans le métro" by 20minutes

http://www.20minutes.fr/paris/1610159-20150518-paris-pollution-aussi-metro

  • Article 4 : "Is the air in underground subways harming our health?" by Railway technology

http://www.railway-technology.com/features/feature-air-in-underground-subways-harming-health/

  • Article 5 : "Fighting Pollution, Paris Imposes Partial Driving Ban" by NY Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/fighting-pollution-paris-imposes-partial-driving-ban.html

BRULE Manon
Videos:
  • Video 1 : Numbers of death per year because of the pollution with more facts end proofs

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x11zg9c_two-million-deaths-a-year-caused-by-airpollution_travel

  • Videos #2 :Video with numerous people trying to go in the train in Tokyo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNMao5AQlUk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5Um19dzbfg

  • Video 3 :Risque des employés exposés à la pollution des métros

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xy685o_air-pollue-dans-le-metro-ils-tirent-la-sonnette-dalarme_news


Book : "Building and Environment Volume 92", October 2015, Pages 407–417

Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air quality dependent ventilation system

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S036013231500222X


Documents:

  • Article 1 : "Affluence du métro en IDF"

http://www.planetoscope.com/Mobilite/443-nombre-de-voyageurs-dans-le-metro-en-ile-defrance.html

  • Article 2 : "L’air du métro une menace pour les travailleurs et les passagers"

http://www.lemonde.fr/pollution/article/2015/09/10/l-air-du-metro-et-des-gares-souterrainesmenace-la-sante-des-agents-qui-y-travaillent_4751529_1652666.html

  • Article 3 : "Métro dans le monde"

http://www.toolito.com/voyage/10-metros-frequentation-du-monde/

  • Article 4 : "Pourquoi la pollution de l’air est-il un danger pour la santé"

http://www.la-croix.com/Ethique/Sciences-Ethique/Sciences/Pollution-de-l-air-un-danger-pour-lasante-publique-_NP_-2013-01-07-895902

  • Article 5 : "Comparaison air de la rue et du métro"

http://www.science-et-vie.com/2014/05/lair-du-metro-il-pollue-celui-rue/

CHERVIN Camille
Videos:
  • Video 1: Pollution dans le metro: Respire sur BFMTV, from BFMTV

http://www.respire-asso.org/pollution-dans-le-metro-respire-sur-bfmtv/

  • Video 2: Le métro est-il pollué (Marseille), from LCM

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlm66p_le-metro-est-il-pollue-marseille_auto

  • Video 3: L’endroit où l’on respire le plus de particules fines c’est le metro, Pierre Chasseray, from Europe 1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4v8Fs269x2U (à partir de 4”20)


Book : Contribution à la maîtrise particulaire de l’air des stations du métro parisien, from Sandra Pillot Tokarek

https://books.google.fr/books?id=abtrOwAACAAJ&dq=L'air+du+métro&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMIr57FuruVyA IVgrgUCh326A7D


Documents:

  • Article 1: A new system to reduce air pollution in metro platform, from Science Direct

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029611010413

  • Article 2: Tube dust is not « safe », from Clean Air London in response to London Assembly Issues

http://cleanair.london/hot-topics/tube-dust-is-not-safe/

  • Article 3: Is the air in underground subways harming our health?

http://www.railway-technology.com/features/feature-air-in-underground-subways-harming-health/

  • Article 4: Dans les stations de métro, une exposition suffocante, from Libération

http://www.liberation.fr/terre/2015/06/02/dans-les-stations-de-metro-une-exposition-suffocante_1321725

  • Article 5: Quel air respire-t-on dans le metro?, from Respire-Asso

Association Nationale pour la prévention der l’amélioration de la qualité de l’air. http://www.respire-asso.org/quel-air-respire-t-on-dans-le-metro/

CEUGNIET Nans
Videos:
  • Video 1 : "UK government’s culture of non-compliance with the air pollution quality laws while 29 000 Brits die a year"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chyCEwojUd0

  • Video 2 : "La pollution aux particules fines touche aussi le métro"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zeg--shr_Q

  • Video 3 : "The benefits of Iodine"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRDR-6tBtV8


Book : Qualité de l’air dans les modes de transports terrestres, from Lavoisier

https://books.google.fr/books?id=NcZupWLgUpkC&pg=PA22&dq=L'air+du+métro&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0CCkQ6AEwA2oVChMIr5 7FuruVyAIVgrgUCh326A7D#v=onepage&q=L'air%20du%20métro&f=false


Documents:

  • Article 1: "Dans le métro, l'air est plus pollué que sur le périph' Parisien" by MétroNews

http://www.metronews.fr/paris/dans-le-metro-l-air-est-plus-pollue-que-sur-le-periph-parisien/mmaC!YnYUb3KBhglq2/

  • Article 2: "De l’eau, de l’air, de l’iode : un vrai bain d’énergie" by Psychologies

http://www.psychologies.com/Bien-etre/Prevention/Thalasso-et-thermalisme/Articles-et-Dossiers/De-l-eau-de-l-air-de-l-iode-un-vrai-bain-d-energie

  • Article 3: "Air Pollution" by Jeffrey Masters, Ph.D. — Director of Meteorology, Weather Underground, Inc.

http://www.wunderground.com/resources/health/airpollution.asp

  • Article 4: "Paris : la pollution aux particules envahit le métro et le RER" by LeFigaro

http://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/2015/05/18/01008-20150518ARTFIG00172-paris-la-pollution-aux-particules-envahit-le-metro-et-le-rer.php

  • Article 5: PDF doc with a description on air pollution

https://tfl.gov.uk/cdn/static/cms/documents/air-quality-on-underground.pdf

AMPRINO Charlotte
Videos:
  • Video 1 : "Improving air quality in underground transport systems - Fulvio Amato, Pop Days 2014"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeoTElAEgpo

  • Video 2 : "Bacteria on the NYC Subway"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7LlfBDHK0c

  • Video 3 : "Pollution : le métro parisien plus pollué que le périphérique ?"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5M5uEcIDLA4


Book : Atmospheric Environment Volume 92, August 2014, Pages 461–468 Subway platform air quality: Assessing the influences of tunnel ventilation, train piston effect and station design Atmospheric Environment

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101400315X


Documents:

  • Article 1 : "How Gross Is the Air of the NYC Subway, Really?"

www.citylab.com/commute/2013/04/how-gross-air-nyc-subway-really/5410/

  • Article 2 : "Study on Air Quality Characteristics of Subway Stations using Sensor Module"

http://www.ijesd.org/papers/340-M30010.pdf

  • Article 3 : "What are you breathing on the subway?"

http://www.timeout.com/newyork/things-to-do/what-are-you-breathing-on-thesubway

  • Article 4 : "Next to You on the Subway"

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/28/science/microbes-hitch-a-ride-on-the-subway.html

  • Article 5 : "Polémique sur la pollution de l'air dans le métro parisien"

http://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/2007/06/23/01008-20070623ARTFIG90757- polemique_sur_la_pollution_de_l_air_dans_le_metro_parisien.php

FONTAINE Estelle
Videos:
  • Video 1 : "London: underground's pollution"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5CnU46og8T4

  • Video 2 : "La pollution aux particules fines touche aussi le métro"

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2qktpe

  • Video 3 : "Ozone pollution increases in metro area"

http://www.9news.com/video/4206373485001/1/Ozone-pollution-icreases-in-metro-area


Book : "Beyond Sustainability: A Thriving Environment"

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=IE7mAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=pollution+from+the+subway+around+the+world&source=bl&ots=r3xzguBEL5&sig=JMruLL0iszn6sv8toc272LjbLug&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAWoVChMIrLv6jPiWyAIVA9caCh2CUwVB#v=onepage&q=pollution%20from%20the%20subway%20around%20the%20world&f=false


Documents:

  • Article 1 : "China Racing Ahead Of US In Subways And Smog"

http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2013/03/19/china-racing-ahead-of-u-s-in-subways-and-smog/

  • Article 2 : "Elevated Pollution Level Found in NYC Subway Air"

http://columbiaspectator.com/2004/01/22/elevated-pollution-level-found-nyc-subway-air

  • Article 3 : "Air Pollution And Exposure Assessment"

http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~chilli/airexp.html

  • Article 4 : "Pollution Figures From MTA New York City Transit"

http://www.brooklynrail.net/info_pollution.html

First description of our project

First description of our project's idea
A « trace elements-based » purification system for the undergrounds

Please answer to the three expected questions:
1. What Problem do you want to solve ?

Today, air pollution in undergrounds and closed railway stations is a real health issue for both travellers and employees. The air breathed in the basement has a much higher pollution rate than outside or housing. It has been recently stated that the concentration of PM 10, a fine particle causing the pollution, is 3 times more important in metro stations than outside. Indeed, in the air, the concentration of fines particles (PM 10) cannot exceed 50 µg/m3 of air more than 35 days per year. These kind of fine particles, PM 10 (measure 0. 01 millimeter) and PM 2.5 (measure less than 0.0025 millimeter), are known to penetrate deeply into the lungs and affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

Definition of fines particles: Atmospheric particulate matter is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Sources of particulate matter can be man-made or natural. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health.

The underground is supposed to be very safe because there are not a lot of accidents, but because of fines particles this kind of transport is not out of danger. In fact the air is dangerous for passengers. This pollution is invisible, odorless and colorless. A pick at 237 microgram was registered during the rush hour, so it represents 4 times the alert threshold (which can be most of the time passed).

Thus, the air pollution in underground is a true health problem, mainly because it concerns a lot of people all around the world. The most affected are underground employees, in France (Paris) especially 15.000 workers. Those people are breathing a dirty air all day long and they are already wondering about future health problems they may have. Concerning passengers, more than 4 million of people are affected per day in Paris. Both of them are more likely to contract easier asthma, infarction and respiratory diseases. So, the bad quality of air in undergrounds is the problem we want to solve.


2. Why does this problem exist?

The air pollution in subways mainly comes from the railway activities and the traffic density. Every day there are millions of travellers using the subway, that is why stations are often too full and it has an impact on the braking of the trains. Moreover, the problem is that all of these pollutants come from the rowing frictions of the train.

World Health organization set standards regarding air quality: it was fixed to 50 mg/m3. However, the most used undergrounds can reach highly concentrated rate of particles PM 10. For example, in London subways, some measurements show there are between 550 and 1120 particles/m3.

Therefore, studies have shown that old stations with deep networks are the ones where air is the most contaminated.

The recent studies of the Parisian Organization of Health said that there is no short term risk. However, doctors are also saying that as long as there is no solution for removing this contamination, there will be a risk of cardiovascular diseases for subway drivers and daily travellers.

Moreover, undergrounds are located in busy cities and the aeration of these underground are on the roads around the stations. Aerations are positioned so that the pollution from the car pollutes the air present inside the underground. So what is supposed to be a ventilation therefore a benefit, turns out to be an aggravating pollution causes this effect.


3. What breakthrough are you commited to creating?

We are committed to create a distributor of trace-elements in the subways that would tackle 2 problems:  Reducing the impact of the pollution caused by the undergrounds on passengers and employees’ health which can provoke cardio vascular troubles and numerous respiratory problems. In the future, health problems will considerably decrease.  Reducing the emission of fines particles provoked by braking trains in the external environment. With our system the air evacuated will be healthier, so the impact on the environment will be reduced.

This table shows all problems caused by fines particles in the undergrounds and a way to reduce their impact on the health of passengers:

Problems caused by fines particles: Respiratory problems: Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Heart problems: Cardiovascular risks, Disturb blood circulation

Trace-elements fighting these problems: -zinc -phosphorus -sulfur -silver -manganese -copper -iodine -phosphorus -selenium -chromium -silicon -manganese -the cobalt


• Benefits from these following natural nutriments:

 Trace-elements fighting respiratory problems: Zinc: Stimulates the immune system to avoid respiratory bacterial infections Phosphorus: Involved in respiratory and cardiac disorders Sulfur: Treats respiratory infections (nasopharyngitis, asthma) Manganese and copper: Together helps to fight against asthma and promotes good breathing in case of respiratory sensitization Silver (copper and manganese): Silver combined with copper, manganese and gold is effective to treat respiratory problems. Moreover, this mixture treats angina, the nasopharyngeal infections and lung infections Copper: Helps to fight against infectious states, moreover it is an immune stimulant

 Trace-elements fighting heart problems: Iodine: Iodine is an essential trace of elements that is vital for normal growth and development. The health benefits of iodine play a very important role in the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, which secretes thyroid hormones that control the base metabolic rate of the body Selenium: Attracts attention because of its antioxidant properties, which protect cells from damages, including affection of fine particles of iron and steel. It protects cells from against their aging Chromium: This element is essential in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Hence it is used in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases Silicon: Some areas where the water own more silicon, show a lower mortality cardiovascular disease Manganese: Treats efficiency asthma and nasopharyngitis

What is the extent of the impact of the pollution problem in subway? This solution concerns the entire world because the most affected undergrounds are in the biggest cities.


Potential experts already identified
Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail, mail: celluleveille@anses.fr, telephone: 01 49 77 13 50, Adresse: 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie 94701 Maisons-Alfort

L’organisation mondiale de la santé, mail: who60@who.in, telephone + 41 22 791 21 11, Adresse: Avenue Appia 20
1211 Genève 27 
Suisse

RATP, mail: contact@ratpdev.com, telphone : 01 58 77 18 77, adresse: RATP LAC B 916 54, quai de la Rapée, 75599 Paris Cedex 12

Observatoire régional de la santé, mail : c.canet@ors-idf.org, telephone: 01 77 49 78 60, adresse: 43 rue Beaubourg, 75003 Paris

Surveillance de la qualité de l’air de l’environnement souterrain, mail: Idem RATP, telephone: Idem RATP, adresse: Idem RATP


Homepage of the course