First assignment of group n° 012
Resources used by the team
New York: New Press.
Charles Clover Ebury Press (UK),New Press (US) 2004 (UK), 2006 (US) ISBN 0-09-189780-7 (UK; Hardcover 1st ed.)
The World Is Blue: How Our Fate and the Ocean's Are One Paperback
First description of our project
How to save our ecosystem
1. What Global Problematic do we want to solve ?
Year by year, the Sustainable Development environmental aspects appear to be more and more evoked. If we want to insure by now the continuity and the sustainability of our planet for the next years, it is the duty for each individual to protect our ecosystem.
This protection is primarily a “clean challenge” for each of us. Indeed, daily habits like sort its wastes from home, limit the pollution, strive to recycle or limit the use of exhaustible resources are so many points able to save the ecosystem from its exhaustion.
For many years, approximately 1.8 million different species have been described on the surface of our planet due to overexploitation and to messes made by our industries. Currently, 29% of the 600 species of fish identified on Earth are on track to total extinction. This aberration is not negligible. It is in fact present at all levels of the biosphere. As predicted by Darwin in his evolutionary theory, the direction and pace of change is coordinated by natural selection but remains conditioned by human activity.
We are therefore facing from now major challenges, because the accelerated erosion of biodiversity is caused mainly and exclusively by the human race.
Today it is time to solve and adress this problem by reversing the trend, and making of the human activity an asset for the preservation of wildlife as well as our entire ecosystem. The wrongs actions of our modern society, however, already seriously endangered animal species and the ecosystem.
How could we therefore reconcile human activity with a favorable biodiversity development over long term?
This is the challenge we want to focus on, by setting up a system enabling to humanity support herself and allow it the access to global resources, without exceeding the limits that may affect the smooth running of the ecosystem.
2. Why does this problem exist?
In fact, the truth is thatthese issues have already existed in the past. Nevertheless, by the presence and the constant advancement of innovation and becaue of new methods that accompany it, the overexploitation of the Earth only further intensify.
It is estimated that the fish consumption is estimated of an individual has increased from 10 kg in the 20 th century to 19 kg nowadays and according to the estimations, this figure keeps increasing each year.
Seals the problems of our modern era of consumption include various elements characterizing the fragility of our ecosystem.
→ The fragmentation and destruction of the natural environments bound, in particular, with the increasing urbanisation and the expansion of the agricultural lands;
→ The overexploitation of wild species (Overfishing, deforestation, poaching…) ;
→ Pollution (of industrial, agricultural origin…) ;
→ The climate change (which has a direct or indirect effect on the biodiversity) ;
Beyond those points, the main reasons linked to overfishing are the followings :
Nowadays, most of fishing companies have huge vessels, equipment and advanced technology which help them to fishing in the deeper ocean. They also can stay on the ocean for weeks and months. Besides, advanced storage technology also allow fishing companies to catch more fish.
2. UNSUSTAINABLE FISHING
More and more companies prefer to use big nets and automatic machine to catch fish and it caused many other ocean animals are effected. Like cetaceans, turtles, sharks, seabirds, corals, dolphin and invertebrates etc. Although most fishing companies will discard these non-fish ocean animals back to the ocean, which still caused a irreversible damage to them. Because most of ocean animals once they leave their groups and the environment that they already used be, they will die very soon.
3. GHOST FISHING
Many large fisheries stay for weeks and months in deep seas and sometime loose their nets. These nets continue to trap and catch fishes under the water and end up killing them. These discarded nets stay there for many decades and the destruction that is caused is fairly significant. Besides, these rubbish caused by fishing also is an important part of ocean pollution.
4. ECONOMIC AND FOOD NEEDS
The amount of fishes that fishing industries bring ashore depends on the market and needs of consumers. In the past century, humans have multiplied in many folds and the need for food and fish has also multiplied. This, together with economic ambitions of fisheries has forced them to catch more fish that the oceans can replace.
Due to the amount of money that can be made catching and selling certain types of fish as seafood and sushi around the world, more and more fisherman are hitting the ocean to make their daily livings off of what they catch. Unfortunately, many companies who fund and hire fleets of fishing boats are primarily concerned with making money and beating their competition without regard for the environment or future fish populations.
6. A LACK OF MANAGEMENT
Government regulations and traceability of fishing activities has long been a problem in the fishing industry. Current rules and regulations are not strong enough to limit fishing capacity to a sustainable level. This is particularly the case for the high seas, where there are few international fishing regulations, and those that exist are not always implemented or enforced. Many fisheries management bodies are not able to adequately incorporate scientific advice on fish quotas, and customs agencies and retailers cannot always ensure that the fish entering their country is caught legally and in a sustainable way.
7. ILLEGAL FISHING
One key dimension of the overfishing crisis is illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing. It occurs across all types of fisheries, within national and international waters, and small scale to large industrialized operations. Illegal fishing accounts for an estimated 20% of the world’s catch and as much as 50% in some fisheries. The costs of illegal fishing are significant, with the value of pirate fish products estimated at between $10-23.5 billion annually.
Many governments still continue to subsidize their fleets, allowing unprofitable operations to subsist, and overfishing to occur. Today’s worldwide fishing fleet is estimated to be up to two and a half times the capacity needed to catch what we actually need.
In summary, biodiversity is a key theme for the survival of our planet and of its resources. Mismanagement or overexploitation of our global system can generate can unpredictable and serious consequences. The disappearance of certain plant or animal species could entail disastrous results for the whole ecosystem and, by chain reaction, lead to the extinction of many other species, which could announce the end of our survival on Earth. Furthermore, only natural selection should intervene at a large scale in order to allow a good balance and a wealthy state of the planetary resources
The following scheme resumes summarizes the current issues specific to our study.
3. What breakthroughs did we think about?
Still in the sens of our philosophy, we aim to create an electronic system which could be integrated into the fishing nets, in order to tackle the different problems linked to the need of protecting endangered species and to avoid the giant planetary mess/waste of our “exploited but not consummed” ressources :
In fact, our system could be a kind of little suitcase/box that would be able to give at the same time you are fishing , the species you have in your fishig net and wether the concerned species make part in the disappareancence process or not.
Of course we can also think about different breakthroughs for such a situation like installing detectors around the boats and preparing softwares for a better management of the ressources accumulated on the boats.
So, thanks to this options we want to solve the problem of species disappareacence and let to rare species their chance to exist in seabeds.
Moreover our system would be able to calculate number of species which have been fishing and their age in order to let the younger ones keep growing before being captured and allow a better management of the circle of life.
Finally, our system would be able to diffuse a product that could reduce the petrol effect on marine animal-life , usualy caused by polluting boats.
No idea yet : We do not really understand what you mean by "potential pannel experts".We should clear this aspect during the meeting so we could have a better targeting for our project in a close future